Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 22(7), 937 (2006).

Micro-miniature Autonomous Optical Sensor Array for Monitoring Ions and Metabolites 2: Color Responses to pH, K+ and Glucose
Koji TOHDA and Miklós GRATZL
Department of Biomedical Engineering, CASE (Case Western Reserve University), Cleveland OH 44106, USA
In Part 1 of this series (Anal. Sci., 2006, 22, 383), design, fabrication, and optical data acquisition of an array of tiny color changing capsules embedded in a cellulose acetate bar, called the “sliver sensor”, have been described. Capsule colors are read by a CCD camera and translated into blue, red and green Kubelka-Munk variables for quantitative analysis. The respective concentrations are determined using prior calibration. The approach may be adapted to different non-biological analytical problems, as well as in vitro and in vivo applications. To demonstrate this adaptability to potential in vivo use as an example, sensitivity for each target ion was tuned to cover the respective interstitial levels by varying the relative amount of ionophore used in the corresponding microscopic beads. After optimizing the ratio of glucose oxidase (GOX)-containing beads relative to the coupled pH sensing beads and their composition, reversible color response to glucose was obtained in the entire clinically relevant glucose concentration range (10 to 600 mg/dL, 0.55 to 33 mM). Decoupling of pH and glucose sensing from possible variations in interstitial sodium level and buffer capacity is currently being optimized for future in vivo use. In vitro and non-biological applications are also being explored.