Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 19(4), 487 (2003).

Surface-analytical Studies on Environmental and Geochemical Surface Processes
Haruhiko SEYAMA*  and Mitsuyuki SOMA**
*Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
**Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
The surface chemical compositions of solid samples from environmental and geological sources can differ from the bulk or average compositions, because of changes caused by adsorption, dissolution, oxidation, etc. Accordingly, analytical information on surface layers is important for a better understanding of the environmental chemistry involving solid surfaces. The rapid development of surface-analytical techniques has enabled us to probe the surface chemistry of environmental and geological solid samples of complex composition. This article demonstrates some examples of important items of information that can be obtained by applying surface-analytical techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to environmental and geological samples. The surface analysis of fly ashes, soils, sediments and weathered silicate minerals is reviewed.