Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 37(8), 1061 (2021).

A Review of Underwater Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Submerged Solids
Ayumu MATSUMOTO* and Tetsuo SAKKA**
*Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280, Japan
**Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto-daigau-katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan
Fundamentals to applications of underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of submerged solid targets are reviewed. Since the deformation of spectral lines caused by plasma confinement has been the most serious problem in underwater LIBS, the methods developed to overcome this effect are overviewed. Deep-sea LIBS, which is the most successful application of underwater LIBS, is described in some detail as well as the hydrostatic pressure effects. Since the downsizing of underwater LIBS instrument is an important task for the applications to on-site measurements, studies on non-gated LIBS are covered. In the subsequent section, the methods for the quantitative analysis of the underwater LIBS signal are reviewed. The basics of the plasma parameters used in quantitative analysis are explained, and various methods of quantitative analysis applicable to underwater LIBS are described.