Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 37(5), 673 (2021).

Fabrication of Biosensing Interface with Monolayers
Mutsuo TANAKA* and Osamu NIWA**
*Department of Life Science & Green Chemistry, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690, Fusaiji, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293, Japan
**Advanced Science Research Laboratory, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690, Fusaiji, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293, Japan
Surface modification is recognized as one of the fundamental techniques to fabricate biosensing interfaces. This review focuses on the surface modification of carbon substrates (GC and HOPG) and silica with a close-packed monolayer, in particular. In the cases of carbon substrates, GC and HOPG, it was demonstrated that surface modification of carbon substrates with diazonium derivatives could create a close-packed monolayer similar to the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation with mercapto derivatives. Similarly, the potential of trialkoxysilanes to form a close-packed monolayer was evaluated, and modification with a close-packed monolayer tended to occur under milder conditions when the trialkoxysilanes had a longer alkyl chain. In these studies, we synthesized surface modification materials having ferrocene as a redox active moiety to explore features of the modified surfaces by an electrochemical method using cyclic voltammetry, where surface concentrations of immobilized molecules and blocking effect were studied to obtain insight for density leading to a close-packed layer. Based on those findings, fabrication of a biosensing interface on the silica sensing chip of the waveguide-mode sensor was carried out using triethoxysilane derivatives bearing succinimide ester and oligoethylene glycol moieties to immobilize antibodies and to suppress nonspecific adsorption of proteins, respectively. The results demonstrate that the waveguide-mode sensor powered by the biosensing interface fabricated with those triethoxysilane derivatives and antibody has the potential to detect several tens ng/mL of biomarkers in human serum with unlabeled detection method.