Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 37(1), 177 (2021).

New Definitions of the Kilogram and the Mole: Paradigm Shift to the Definitions Based on Physical Constants
National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563, Japan
The kilogram is the unit of mass and was defined in 1889 by the international prototype of the kilogram. The mole is the unit of amount of substance and was defined in 1960 by the number of atoms in 0.012 kg of 12C. These definitions were revised in May 2019. The new definitions of the kilogram and the mole are based on the Planck constant h and the Avogadro constant NA, respectively. The values of h and NA used in the new definitions were determined by summarizing measurement results of the two physical constants by several national metrology institutes around the world. In this review, the history of the two units and measurement technologies used to derive the new definitions are described. The effect of the revision on the development of new measurement technologies is also introduced.