Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 30(7), 707 (2014).

Quasi-elastic Laser Scattering for Measuring Inhomogeneous Interfacial Tension in Non-equilibrium Phenomena with Convective Flows
Tomonori NOMOTO,* Taro TOYOTA,**,*** and Masanori FUJINAMI*
*Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
**Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
***Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
An inhomogeneous distribution of interfacial tension can induce different types of non-equilibrium spontaneous motion at the interface by convective flow, or by the solutal Marangoni effect. Several applications of the quasi-elastic laser scattering (QELS) method used to study these effects are presented here. The relationship between the interfacial tension and the non-equilibrium phenomena has been verified experimentally for each application. In a water/nitrobenzene oscillatory system with continuous surfactant addition to the interface, the local adsorption of surfactants at the interface has been demonstrated and shown to be strongly related to the presence of electrolytes. In a donor/membrane/acceptor system, the dual-beam QELS method shows that surfactant adsorption at the membrane/acceptor interface is responsible for oscillations in the electric potential. The differences in the adsorption/desorption behavior of metal complex catalysts between air/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces were considered in the propagating chemical waves of the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction. We successfully measured the distribution of interfacial tension around a self-propelled camphor boat and an alcohol droplet floating on an aqueous phase, and compared the mechanisms of their motion.