Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 22(11), 1441 (2006).

Carotenoids Extraction from Japanese Persimmon (Hachiya-kaki) Peels by Supercritical CO2 with Ethanol
Mayako TAKAHASHI,* Hiromoto WATANABE,* Junko KIKKAWA,* Masaki OTA,* Masaru WATANABE,* Yoshiyuki SATO,* Hiroshi INOMATA,* and Nobuyuki SATO**
*Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-403, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
**Industrial Technology Institute, Miyagi Prefectural Government, 2-2, Akedohri, Izumi, Sendai 981-3206, Japan
The extraction of carotenoids from Japanese persimmon peels by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), of which the solvent was CO2, was performed. In order to enhance the yield and selectivity of the extraction, some portion of ethanol (5 - 20 mol%) was added as an entrainer. The extraction temperature ranged from 313 to 353 K and the pressure was 30 MPa. The effect of temperature on the extraction yield of carotenoids was investigated at 10 mol% of the ethanol concentration in the extraction solvent, and a suitable temperature was found to be 333 K among the temperatures studied with respect to the carotenoid yield. With increasing the entrainer amount from 0 to 10 mol% at a constant temperature (333 K), the carotenoid yield in the extraction was improved, whereas the selectivity of the extracted carotenoids was drastically depressed. We also conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses for the carotenoid components in the extract by HPLC, and analyzed the extraction behavior of each individual carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin). The selectivity of each carotenoid changed with the elapsed time and its time evolution was dependent on the carotenoid component, indicating that the location profile and the content can be important factors to understand the SFE behavior of each carotenoid in persimmon peels.