Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 22(1), 105 (2006).

Flow Injection Determination of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity and Its Application to Food Samples
Le Hoang LAM, Ken SAKAGUCHI, Hiroyuki UKEDA, and Masayoshi SAWAMURA
Department of Bioresources Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Monobe B-200, Nankoku 783-8502, Japan
The enzyme xanthine oxidase (XOD) has been recognized as a key enzyme causing oxidative injury to tissues by ischemia-reperfusion. For this reason, XOD inhibitor, which effectively suppresses this enzyme, plays an important role in the inhibition of many diseases related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to screen XOD inhibitors rapidly and conveniently, a novel assay using flow injection analysis (FIA) was proposed in the present investigation. To optimize the practical FIA system, we studied the effect of the reagent concentrations and the flow condition on the enzymatic reaction, and then selected the optimum condition as follows: 200-mU/ml XOD concentration, 0.5-mM xanthine concentration, 0.5-ml/min flow rate, and 2-m mixing coil length. Under this condition, a typical XOD inhibitor quercetin was determined in the concentration range 0.1 - 1.5 mM at a sampling frequency of 10 samples/h. Using the optimized FIA method, we determined the XOD inhibitory activity of some food samples: onions, apples and teas, which are the high sources of flavonoids known as the potential XOD inhibitors. Among these samples, tea leaves showed the highest activity, the second was onions and the lowest was apples. Based on the result of the assay, not only quercetin, but also other components in investigated samples, contributed to the XOD inhibitory activity.