Analytical Sciences

Abstract − Analytical Sciences, 18(5), 549 (2002).

Use of Disposable GRC Electrodes for the Detection of Phenol and Chlorophenols in Liquid Chromatography
Jiye JIN,* Toshiya HIROI,** Kiyohito SATO,** Tomoo MIWA,** and Toyohide TAKEUCHI**
*Instrumental Analysis Center, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
**Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
In this study, a wall-jet flow cell with a GRC (graphite reinforced by carbon) electrode was designed for the amperometric detection of phenol and chlorophenols in liquid chromatography. The voltammetric responses of these analytes at the GRC electrodes are very similar to those at conventional glassy carbon electrodes. As the GRC electrodes were made of the same materials as commercially available mechanical pencil leads, they exhibit the advantages of low cost, simple surface renewability, lower residual current, and good electrode-to-electrode reproducibility, and thus can be used as disposable-type electrodes. Chromatographic separations of phenol, o-chlorophenol (o-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were achieved with an ODS column using a mobile phase containing a mixture of CH3CN and H2O (40:60) containing 25 mM L-(+)tartaric acid (pH = 4.5). Amperometric detections were based on the electrochemical oxidation of these compounds around +0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under the optimized conditions, linear calibrations were obtained in a range up to 100 uM for phenol, o-CP, 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP, and 200 uM for PCP, with the correlation coefficients r2 of 0.9992, 0.9997, 0.9986, 0.9992, and 0.9968, respectively. The chromatographic detection limits for the tested analytes were obtained at pmol levels.